Call to action by the ASPIRA Center for Educational Equity, against proposed legislation, citing injustices under S. 2002, the "Bilingual Education Amendments of 1981," and "Bilingual Education Improvements Act of 1982," which would limit a child's ability to participate in a bilingual program, ca. 1985. ASPIRA was founded in 1961 by Puerto Rican-born Antonia Pantoja to counter a high dropout rate by Puerto Rican youth in New York City's high schools. Pantoja emphasized leadership development and community service, as well as a commitment to educational excellence. In 1968, ASPIRA America grew out of the original organization, now know as the ASPIRA Association, with offices in several states and Puerto Rico.